Definitive Guide to CBD Oils: Dangers & Addiction
CBD oil is one of the best supplements when it comes to treating pain, anxiety and a variety of medical conditions.
But very often, choosing the right product is a task.
This is especially due to the slew of multiple options. So, in this article, we have reviewed the top CBD oils.
Additionally, we’ve also provided a buying guide that’ll help you make the right pick.
Table of Contents
- 1. What Is CBD Oil?
- 2. How to Use CBD Oil?
- 3. What Does CBD Oil Do?
- 4. Benefits Of Using CBD Oil
- 5. Is it Safe to Ingest CBD Oil?
- 6. CBD Oil vs. Hemp-Seed Oil
- 7. Is It Legal To Use CBD Oil?
- 8. How to Buy Quality CBD Oil
- 9. Tips when Purchasing CBD Oil?
- 10. Buying CBD Oils
- 11. Shopping for CBD Oil
- 12. Review of Top CBD Oils
What Is CBD Oil?
Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is a type of phytocannabinoid.
Sourced from the cannabis plant, CBD comes with a distinctive quality: it doesn’t result in a similar hallucinatory impact like THC or tetrahydrocannabinol.
Instead, it leads to drowsiness and a sense of complete tranquillity.
This is probably one of the main reasons why it is widely popular among individuals battling with insomnia and sleep disorders.
Studies have found that CBD is equally effective in treating symptoms of anxiety, epileptic fits, and diabetes.
Unlike THC and other cannabinoids, CBD is not entirely illegal. Note that the legality might differ depending on the state you live in.
Every US state has specific laws for selling, possessing and using CBD.
CBD occurs naturally and it is one of the largest cannabinoids to be available in marijuana and hemp. Certain research has revealed that CBD contains almost 40% of the extract of the hemp plant.
Our bodies also produce cannabinoids. Widely known as endocannabinoids, they are present in our endocannabinoid system.
This system induces homeostasis by boosting a range of functions like better cognitive abilities, an upliftment in the mood, an increase in appetite, and a better quality of sleep.
As we start ageing, our endocannabinoid system produces lesser endocannabinoids.
The production might also be hampered due to physical injuries or ailments.
So, if you are looking to replenish the endocannabinoids in your system, CBD is one of your best bets! It restores your body balance and keeps you fit and active.
But what is CBD oil?
In its essence, CBD oil is an extract that is sourced from the cannabidiol.
In the US it can be broadly classified into two groups. The first one is crystalline isolate that only contains CBD. This is because the additional cannabinoids are removed from it.
The next one in line is the full spectrum of oil. Unlike the former, this extract contains THC as well as the other psychoactive cannabinoids.
While the crystalline isolate is legal in most US states, full-spectrum oil is available for purchase only in those US-based states where it is legal to consume marijuana.
Usually, the CBD oil sourced from hemp only contains around 0.3% of THC, and (like we previously mentioned) it doesn’t have any psychoactive impact.
However, when CBD oil is sourced from cannabis it might have up to 30% THC which might result in a stronger psychoactive impact.
How to Use CBD Oil?
One can consume CBD oil in various ways. For instance, you can ingest it in the form of food products or capsules.
Alternatively, you can also vaporize it, use it as a tincture or as a topical cream.
Here’s what you should know about using CBD oil:
- Capsules: When CBD oil is manufactured as capsules, you can orally ingest them. You can take these capsules with or without food. The dosage, however, will depend on your medical practitioner
- Tinctures: You can also ingest CBD oil as a tincture. Available in dropper bottles, CBD tinctures are often used as an additive for food
- Vapour: Alternatively known as Vape and Vape juice, you can heat the CBD vapour and inhale it with the help of an e-cigarette or a vaporizer pen. As with the other variants of CBD oil, the concentrations here are likely to vary
- Topical: You can apply this type of CBD on your skin. The consistency of the topical CBD oil is like that of a cream
Note that you can get both the unscented and the flavoured variants of CBD oil. The common flavours include peppermint, vanilla, citrus, lavender, vanilla, berry, rose, cinnamon, and others.
Most CBD oils are available in bottles that measure from 15 millilitres to 1 ounce. Note that the concentration of CBD here is more essential when compared to the bottle size.
By concentration, we are suggesting the ratio of hemp oil and cannabinoid. A small 15 mL bottle might have around 100 to 500 mg of CBD. Here mg’ refers to the oil’s strength.
The amount of CBD you should take will depend on your body weight, age, and a variety of other factors like your desired impact.
The overall impact of CBD oil will depend on the total concentration. Usually, oils with a low concentration of CBD have minimal impact, while the ones with higher concentration result in stronger impact.
What Does CBD Oil Do?
As previously mentioned, the defining feature of CBD oil is that it treats pain and anxiety. Since both these conditions are likely to affect your sleep, ingesting CBD oil improves your quality of sleep.
For some, CBD oil also enhances the quality and hours of sleep. The result: better rest every night.
Several medical professionals have agreed to the fact that marijuana isn’t the right option for people suffering from mental health issues. The drug is equally unsafe for people suffering from mental health conditions.
This is primarily because the THC from CBD increases the medical or mental health symptoms.
Luckily, there is no such issue with CBD oil. So, if you are suffering from sleep disorders and battling out a variety of medical conditions, CBD oil is perfect for you.
Benefits Of Using CBD Oil
The advantages of using CBD oil are manifold. In this section, we will take a closer look at them.
Here are some of the benefits of using this oil.
1. Better Sleep
There are various reasons why you might experience severe bouts of sleeplessness. Some of them can be:
- Mental health issues like anxiety, post-traumatic stress or depression.
- High doses of medication that adversely affects your sleep-wake cycle.
- Physical conditions like chronic pain and inflammation
- Caffeine, especially when you consume it during the evenings
- A variety of environmental factors like a loud noise or different bed
If you are experiencing insomnia due to either of these external issues, CBD might help treat the cause.
Since it alleviates anxiety and prolongs your sleep, this oil is deemed an excellent option for individuals battling insomnia. People suffering from sleeplessness might further notice that using CBD oil improves their physical symptoms noticeably.
What’s more, you can also increase your wakefulness during the daytime when you consume oil in small doses. If you’re someone who’s been battling with insomnia for long, this oil will comprehensively treat your issue.
2. REM Behavioral Disorder
Do you shout, get physically agitated or act out while trying to sleep? If so, you are probably suffering from REM behaviour disorder.
CBD oil will help you sleep regardless of the disorder. Since REM often indicates a bigger and serious issue like Alzheimer’s it should be addressed immediately.
CBD oil helps address this issue and also reduces the impact of anxiety and other painful physical conditions that are heavily associated with it.
Anxiety and depression, in general, have been closely associated with improper sleep and frequent disruptions in the sleep cycle. CBD oil helps reduce the impact of these symptoms by activating your brain’s serotonin receptor.
Since serotonin soothes your mind and calms you, the effect of anxiety isn’t as pronounced. This results in a deeper sleep.
Additionally, it also prevents the grogginess you experience from staying awake through an extensive-time period.
Unlike benzodiazepines, which might lead to substance abuse, CBD oil has no similar impact.
Since CBD oil has been an excellent treatment for people suffering from depression, many patients are now interested in this chemical-free and organic approach.
In a Brazilian study, almost 57 individuals got either CBD or placebo before a well-stimulated speaking test. The researchers observed that the dose of CBD worked better in removing anxiety and treating depression when compared to the other option.
CBD oil has also been used for treating anxiety and insomnia among kids suffering from post-traumatic issues.
Its antidepressant-like effects soothe and calm individuals, allowing them to battle depression without drugs or psychotic elements.
Since CBD results in the production of serotonin, it also regulates better behavior and keeps your mood consistently good.
4. Chronic Pain
As previously mentioned, CBD oil also effectively treats chronic pain. Since the Endocannabinoid system (ECS) of our system manages and monitors pain, CBD oil here effectively works as a type of supplement for the people troubled with the medical issues that might lead to chronic pain like arthritis and sclerosis.
But how does CBD oil treat chronic pain?
Well, all of us have a cell-signalling system known as the endocannabinoid system.
According to researchers, CBD starts interacting with one of the core components of this system. This in turn positively impacts your immune system and brain.
For the uninitiated, receptors are the small proteins linked to your cells. They are responsible for receiving chemical signals from multiple stimuli.
The result: your cells start responding better. The response results in an anti-inflammatory impact that further helps manage the pain. That means people might be benefitted from CBD oil and similar other products. The results can be achieved on both chronic and back pain.
It has been further noted that CBD oil plays a major role in boosting the level of adenosine in your brain.
Since adenosine is a common neurotransmitter responsible for improving cardiovascular function and reducing inflammation, CBD oil plays a major role in reducing this swollenness and easing the pain.
CBD oil has been widely suggested for patients suffering from Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastraut syndrome. Note that these are two of the rarest forms of epilepsy.
While Gastraut syndrome affects adults, Dravet syndrome primarily affects babies in the first year.
At this point, it leads to several fever-induced seizures. As the baby starts growing, they experience multiple seizures.
Some of them even require emergency treatments as they end up lasting for long hours. This might also affect the language and motor abilities of babies.
Note that the medicine used for treating these epileptic ailments in Epidolex. Interestingly, Epidolex is also an oral solution of CBD. In addition to the given forms, CBD oil may also reduce the intensity of different forms of epilepsy.
It is important to understand that while these are some of the biggest benefits of CBD, its medicinal effects haven’t been studied as extensively.
Although many individuals have claimed that oil has helped them sleep better and longer, we still require more clinical trials to ascertain the actual cause of these improvements.
At that point, we will also get to know whether these benefits can be applied to every individual.
Is it Safe to Ingest CBD Oil?
Since CBD oil has therapeutic properties it is deemed low-risk for a majority of users.
The oil, however, might lead to the following side effects:
1. Dryness of Mouth
Like several hemp-based, and marijuana-based products, ingesting CBD oil often causes moderate to high dryness inside your mouth.
Known as cottonmouth, this usually happens as the cannabinoids end up affecting the receptors in your lower jaw that are responsible for causing salivation.
That said, most people only experience mild bouts of discomfort and a higher degree of thirst.
2. Low Blood Pressure
Right after consuming CBD oil, you might witness a sudden drop in your overall blood pressure level. While this impact is temporary it might cause individuals to feel lightheadedness for a while.
In most cases, the issues with low blood pressure and lightheadedness are worn off over a couple of hours.
However, if you are taking prescription medication, it is important to consult your doctor if you experience this side effect.
This way, you will have complete clarity about whether CBD will counteract the impact of the medicinal drugs you are taking.
Although this isn’t a common symptom for people taking small or regulated doses of CBD oil, you might experience diarrhea if you end up taking a bigger dose of CBD.
In this case, it might interact with your gastrointestinal system leading to diabetes. One of the easiest ways to combat this impact is by lowering your usual dosage of the oil.
4. Higher Appetite
As with other cannabinoids, the ingestion of CBD oil might cause you to experience a strong bout of hunger. This hunger is more than your usual appetite.
Note that since the desired impact of CBD oil is to ensure that individuals experience mild to heavy drowsiness, it is recommended that you avoid using a vehicle or any other heavy types of machinery after ingesting the oil.
This is especially true for people ingesting the oil in a higher dose. Since this automatically increases your risks of being prone to accidents, it is best to avoid the oil before driving.
The Difference Between CBD Oil and Hemp-Seed Oil
While CBD oil isn’t necessarily the same as hemp seed oil, it is often labelled as the latter.
Unlike hemp seed oil that is sourced from hemp seeds, CBD oil is sourced from various parts of the Cannabis plants.
These include the flowers, stem, buds, and leaves.
You can typically use the hemp seed oil for improving your skin health.
Additionally, you can also take it as an oral supplement or a food-based additive. Unlike hemp seed oil, you can only consume the CBD oil orally.
You can, however, use it topically after it is added to balms and moisturizers.
Is It Legal To Use CBD Oil?
Since the beginning of time, hemp can only be grown and cultivated legally, if you are doing it for academic research.
That said, the questions about the legality of hemp were changed last year.
In 2018, April, the Hemp Farming Act was introduced.
According to this law, hemp-based items are legal at a Federal level. Passed by both the House and the Senate, this law also called for de-scheduling industrial hemp.
This is an item that is controlled at a Federal level.
Hemp-laden CBD oil is legal to buy, possess and store in several states. Some of them include Alaska, California, Colorado, District of Columbia, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, Vermont, Washington, and Arkansas.
These states also legalize the use of marijuana-based oils under certain conditions.
In states like Alabama, Arizona, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin you can legally buy, store and consume hemp-based CBD oil.
However, you cannot consume marijuana-based oils recreationally.
The same law applies to the residents of New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island. Other US states have regulations regarding the amount of THC in the hemp-based cannabinoid. However, it is not illegal to store, use, or ingest it if you meet the regulations.
How to Buy Quality CBD Oil
When it comes to buying quality CBD oil, there are multiple options you can resort to. In this section, we will discuss the top options to consider.
If you are planning to buy CBD oil from a specific manufacturer, you can always do so via their website. Most manufacturers have online shopping portals where you can explore the various options and choose the product you are looking to buy.
2. Online Outlets
Almost every leading CBD oil is sold via online outlets. Since there are state-based restrictions regarding selling CBD oil, these online stores might be the only option for many.
Unlike physical stores, online stores come with a wide range of products.
What’s more, they also offer a doorstep delivery service. When you buy CBD oil from online stores, you can explore from a wide range of product testimonials from users.
This way, you get to compare the oils and check which works best for you.
The reviews play an equally vital role in assessing the quality of the retailer according to their product quality, delivery time and overall customer service.
3. Offline Stores
You can find hemp-based CBD oils in some selected offline stores. These are widely found in health supplement outlets, medical stores, and head shops.
If you are not comfortable buying online, visit an over the counter store for complete customer experience. In many cases, the professionals of the offline stores also offer excellent suggestions.
4. Medical Dispensaries
If marijuana is legal to possess and consume in your state (for recreational purposes) you can always rely on a dispensary.
These outlets, however, are a rarity in those states where it is not permissible to buy or use medical marijuana.
When it comes to hemp-based oil, you won’t generally need a prescription.
However, the same cannot be said for marijuana-based oils. Like offline stores, here, you will receive complete customer service.
That said, dispensaries might not be a good option if your state doesn’t allow the same.
Note that the price of CBD oil is usually higher than online stores in both offline stores and dispensaries.
Note that almost all CBD oils are available in concentrations ranging from 300 mg to 750 mg. This can be higher or lower depending on the brand you’re choosing.
It is always a great practice to evaluate the cost you’re incurring for every milligram.
Usually, the low-cost oils are available at 5 cents to 10 cents for every milligram. The quality and high-end products are priced at 16 cents to 20 cents.
Considering these multiple price points, one bottle of CBD might cost you $10 to a whopping $150 or $200.
What Should You Keep In Mind While Purchasing CBD Oil?
While the price is one of the biggest indicators of the quality of CBD oil, here are some other factors to note while buying the product.
1. Mode of Extraction
As evident from the name, extraction refers to the method via which the manufacturers have processed the CBD oil.
This is an extremely important determinant in terms of the CBD oil’s quality because some manufacturers extract the oil with toxic materials like butane or propane.
This is usually done because these oils are available at a cheap price point and they are abundant.
While choosing the oil, make sure it has been safely extracted with quality processing agents like ethanol.
For the uninitiated, ethanol is one of the most common elements for removing unnecessary toxins from the oil.
Additionally, also check if it has gone through carbon-dioxide extraction since it easily strips the toxic materials from the plan by changing the pressure settings and the temperature of the carbon-di-oxide.
2. Growth Environment
In addition to the extraction method, you should also check where the hemp has been sourced from.
As with other crops, these plants can be easily contaminated with toxic minerals, metals, and other materials available in the soil where the plant is grown.
Before choosing the product, try to learn about the farms where these plants are grown and make sure that the soils used here do not contain any toxic contaminants.
3. Third-Party Tests
After the CBD oil has been completely manufactured, most CBD oil companies submit the products for proper and legitimate third-party testing.
Note that these tests are usually conducted by the non-company personnel for ensuring that the hemp oil is completely safe for the consumption of the public.
These tests also check if the product has been manufactured following best practices. Do not purchase oil that doesn’t provide these details.
4. Lab Testing
Like third-party testing, lab testing refers to the fine print details. These test results often come with the oil for backing up the claims of the test.
Although you may not be able to grasp or understand the results, try to choose an oil that comes with them.
It is better than the variants that do not offer this critical detail.
In addition to the above factors, you should also consider your preferences in terms of concentration.
Usually, certain variants of CBD oil like tinctures and vapours come with a concentration that is more than average.
Alternatively, sprays and the topical variants of these products come with low concentration.
That said, it is important to remember that while higher concentration indicates better effects, it doesn’t always shed light on the quality.
Things to Consider While Choosing CBD Oil
While choosing CBD oil, it is best to choose a full-spectrum oil over its isolate.
The reason is simple: unlike isolates, the full-spectrum oils come with a range of cannabinoids.
They also contain the exact compounds as you will find in hemp plants.
This, in turn, helps enhance the benefits of CBD leading to the entourage effect.
If you are wondering how to choose a full-spectrum CBD oil, there is one thing you need to consider: the oil you choose should contain protein, fatty acids, terpenes, flavonoids, fibre, and chlorophyll.
Note that while you will find several CBD oil that claims to be approved by the FDA, the only FDA approved oil is Epidiolex.
Since a large number of CBD oil contain more CBD than usually claimed, it is important to pick a reputable company.
This way, in case of any doubts, you can always reach out to the respective companies. The companies can then produce lab results from a third-party testing solution and address all your doubts regarding the same.
Do not rely on any company that claims to offer an extreme impact. Also, note that the impact might vary depending on the person. A product working on your friends and family members might not have as big of an impact on you.
If the product fails to work, try getting another product with a different set of ingredients. You can also try other products with different doses of CBD.
Things to Consider While Shopping for CBD Oil
Since CBD oil doesn’t have a one-size-solution for everyone, it is important to consider the following factors while purchasing the oil. This will help you make an informed decision.
As we previously mentioned, the price of CBD oil is likely to vary depending on your chosen brand. If you are looking to buy a product that your money’s worth, it is best to assess the per-milligram cost of the oil.
Next, compare it with the maximum price as charged by the bottle.
For instance, you can consider a bottle priced at 10 cents per milligram of CBD oil to be a viable pick.
This way, the bottle should cost $45 at most. If you are planning to get the oil from an online dealer, also check the shipping costs before making your decision.
Yes, your weight plays a major role in the impact you are likely to receive from CBD oil. The final bottle size you choose should depend on your total weight.
For instance, if your weight 130 pounds and you are looking for a CBD oil with mild effects, you should take at least 11 mg dosages.
This way, you can get almost 40 doses from a product that comes at a 450-mg concentration.
If your weight is higher than 230 pounds and you’re looking for a more pronounced impact, a 450mg concentration will only work for 10 doses.
This means you will need at least 40 to 45 mg doses.
3. State Laws
As we previously mentioned, both marijuana and other hemp-based CBD oils have varying regulations depending on the US state you reside in.
The same applies to the Columbian district. That is why it is important to have a clear understanding of your state laws before getting the product. Check if the product you are getting is legal in your state.
This will prevent unpleasant legal issues in the long run.
Several individuals work in organizations or domains where they need to participate in frequent drug tests. If your job has similar constraints, it is best to avoid the full-spectrum CBD oils.
This is primarily because of the THC content. While most of these oils only have a trace amount of THC, it doesn’t rule out the possibility of failing in a drug test. In a situation like this, you can get a crystalline isolate CBD oil.
Since these oils have no amount of THC, they will not impact your drug test.
Although one can always resort to different methods to qualify these drug tests despite taking the full-spectrum oil, it is best to avoid them if your organization has these tests frequently.
5. Blood Thinning Supplements
If you take blood-thinning supplements, proceed with caution while taking CBD oil. Since CBD oil might cause your blood pressure to suddenly drop, it might counteract the effect of the blood thinners.
If you are still insistent on taking CBD oil despite taking a blood thinner, consult your medical care practitioner before doing so. If he allows you to ingest the oil, take suggestions regarding the proper dosage.
This way, you completely ensure that CBD doesn’t compromise your overall health in any way.
6. Third-Party Testing
As we previously mentioned, it is extremely important to ensure that the company you’re taking the CBD oil from, is of significant repute.
Do not choose a manufacturer, solely because they are offering the CBD oil at a low price. Remember, third-party testing is extremely vital for users.
So, if the manufacturer of your chosen product doesn’t offer these details, you should avoid them.
Sourcing the lab results may not be as important as the third-party testing. However, the products that come with lab results indicate better quality.
If you’re looking to get the best product, make sure it comes with both third-party test results as well as their lab results.
7. Physical Vs Online Stores
When it comes to sourcing CBD, another important consideration to make is where you are getting the product from.
Both online stores and physical stores come with their own set of pros and cons.
That said, in this regard, online stores might be the only viable option in some specific states.
With online stores, you can also weigh out the options and check the testimonials of other users. What’s more, you can compare your chosen product with similar products and check if it’s worth a shot.
While CBD oil is essentially unscented, some of them are also available in scented variants.
These oils get their scent from the flavour. Whether or not you will get a flavoured CBD oil will depend on your unique tastes.
You can, however, get more options with the more reputed brands.
Review of Top CBD Oils
In this section, we’ve reviewed the best CBD oil available in the market.
NuLeaf Naturals have been in business since 2014 and they are one of the oldest and widely reviewed CBD oil manufacturers.
Their products are tested by credible third-parties and the profile of their cannabinoids is equally impressive.
NuLeaf oils are full-spectrum and organic tinctures.
They do not contain any toxic material like chemical fertilizers or herbicides.
At NuLeaf, you can pick a CBD oil from varying concentrations between 240mg and 4860 mg. The brand currently ships to 50 states and you also physically collect the oil from their 1,000+ retail outlets.
If your employer conducts frequent drug tests, Medterra’s CBD oil is one of your top options.
This non-THC CBD oil comes with 99.6% CBD with the right blend of MCT oil. Sourced from quality hemp plants, the oil from this brand are pesticide and GMO-free.
You can also check the third-party test results, on the company’s online portal.
At Medterra, the concentrations range from 500 mg to 3,000 mg.
The company also offers CBD capsules in concentrations of 25 mg and 50 mg.
Note that all products from the brand come with a 30-day warranty.
This is yet another full-spectrum oil rich in CBD and terpenes.
Additionally, it also contains a slew of essential ingredients like Omega 3 fatty acids, Vitamin B complex, and twenty amino acids.
The product is sourced from quality GMO-free hemp plants. It is also laden in small amounts of coconut oil.
CBDistillery’s oil concentrates range between 250 mg to 50000 mg.
The company also offers free shipping for all US orders with the cart value of $75 or higher.
Spruce produces high-potency CBD oil for individuals suffering from anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain.
This oil is unflavoured, and it is naturally sourced from organically grown hemp seed. It is gluten-free and ideal for vegans.
The oil contains a trace amount of THC (0.3%) and offers little to no psychoactive effects.
The company is currently selling the product in a 30 ml bottle.
The concentration here is 2,400 mg. The product is also highly affordable.
If you’re looking to buy quality CBD oil, PlusCBD is your best bet!
This is yet another reputed companies and they occupy higher retail space than any other manufacturer in the market.
The CBD tinctures and processed under the brand’s iconic Gold formula which includes a perfect blend of terpenes, CBD, and omega 3 fatty acids to name a few.
It is vegan-friendly and free from unpleasant glutens. The product is currently available in three concentrations ranging from 250 mg to 1,500 mg.
This brand is ideal for the people who are looking to ingest the earthy flavour of hemp. The brand offers a range of CBD oil available in various flavours.
The best part: they also taste excellent. The product doesn’t contain any THC and is available at multiple concentrations.
You can currently pick from concentrations ranging from 300 mg to 500 mg. If the product doesn’t suit your needs, you can always return it within 30 days.
Note that cbdMD also sells CBD in the form of vape oils, pills, and capsules.
Alternatively, you can choose the oil their iconic goji berry and peppermint flavours. cbdMD ships the oil across the US and non-US states.
This is a flavoured variant of CBD oil that is currently available in mint and citrus flavour.
You can also choose the unflavored variant of Fab CBD oil.
The concentration ranges from 20 mg to 1,500 mg and the company will refund the product if you raise a request within 30 days. Note that in addition to CBD oil, you can also get CBD flavored gummies from this brand.
About the author:
Jon writes for ADT Healthcare and a number of other websites. Jon graduated with a degree in psychology in 1992. Jon has been in recovery for 19 years.